Dying Without A Will: The Texas Intestacy Statutes

Dwight D. Eisenhower once said that “America is best described by one word: Freedom.” His quote basically sums up what makes America unique.

We Americans relish our freedoms. We want to live how we like and spend our hard-earned money on what we want. And we resist when the government tries to interfere with our lives. However, less than half of all Americans have even the most basic estate planning documents. As a result, they voluntarily give up their freedom to decide what will happen to their assets when they die.

The law gives you the freedom to decide how and to whom your assets are distributed when you die by making a will. But if you die without a will, your assets will be distributed according to a statutory formula that doesn’t take into account your wishes and unique circumstances.

Below is a summary of the way the assets of those who die without a will in Texas are distributed.

Intestate Distribution For Single People With No Children

If a you are single and die without a will in Texas, the Texas Probate Code dictates that your assets will be distributed as follows:

  1. Your estate will pass equally to your parents if both are living. If only one parent is alive, and you don’t have any brothers or sisters, then your entire estate will pass to your surviving parent.
  2. However if you do have siblings or descendants of siblings (nieces and nephews), then your surviving parent would receive only half of the estate, and the remaining one half would be divided among your siblings or their descendants.
  3. All of your estate would pass to your siblings or their descendants if you have no surviving parents.
  4. If you have no surviving descendants, parents, siblings, or descendants of siblings, then the estate is divided into two halves with one half passing to relatives on your mother’s side of the family and the other one half passing to relatives on your father’s side.
  5. If one side of the family has completely died out, the entire estate would pass to the surviving side of the family.
  6. On rare occasions, when an unmarried person dies without any surviving heir, his estate will pass to the State of Texas.
  7. Perhaps you have a close friend who you would have wanted to share in your estate. That would not be possible without a will.

Intestate Distribution for Those Who Die Unmarried with Children

If you are single and have children, then all your property will pass to your descendants. If your descendants are of the same degree of relationship, (meaning, for example, that all are your children or all are your grandchildren), then the assets will be divided equally between them.

However, if your descendants are of different degrees of relationship, (meaning some of your children predecease you, leaving children or grandchildren of their own), then the younger generation would only be entitled only to the share the older generation would have received had he or she survived.

Intestate Distribution for Those Who Die While Married

Many people may assume that if they are married and die without a will in Texas, their surviving spouse will inherit their entire estate. This is not always the case. How their property is divided depends on whether it is characterized as community property or separate property.

Community Property

All property acquired during a marriage is presumed to be community property. Under Texas laws, if you are married and are survived by a spouse and children, then:

  1. Your surviving spouse will inherit all your community property if all your children are also the children of your surviving spouse;
  2. Otherwise, all your one-half interest in the community estate will pass to your children, with your spouse keeping only his or her one-half interest.

If you do not have any children, then your surviving spouse will inherit all of your community property.

Separate Property

If your property is characterized as separate property, the distribution scheme is different:

  1. If you are survived a spouse and children, your surviving spouse is entitled to one third of your separate personal property and only a life estate (the right to use the property until his or her death) in one-third of your separate real property. The rest would be inherited outright by the children of the deceased spouse.
  2. If you are married but have no children or other descendants, your surviving spouse would be entitled to all the separate personal property. But if you have surviving parents and siblings, the surviving spouse would only be entitled to one-half of the separate real property with the other half passing to the parents, siblings or descendants of siblings in a manner set forth by the statutes.

If you want the freedom to decide how and to whom your property will be distributed when you die, you need a will.

Comments

  1. Hi, What are the obvious benefits of having a will versus not having one in the event one dies? If one has no will and the state has to manage your estate, what percent of your estate goes to the state? Thank you

    • One of the biggest benefits of having a Will is that it allows you to choose how and to whom you want your assets distributed. If you don’t have a Will, your assets will be distributed according to a statutory formula. That does not mean, however, that the state will manage your assets or a percent of your estate goes to the state. It is only in rare circumstances when no heirs can be found that property will pass to the state.

  2. My father-in-law has stage 4 cancer. My mother-in-law has been dead for 2 years. In his will, he left everything to her. He has never changed it. Will the 4 children get everything equally? And does the state get any of the assets? This is in Texas

    • Wills usually identify contingent beneficiaries who will inherit if the primary beneficiary predeceases the testator. Those named as the contingent beneficiaries will inherit. The only time property escheats to the state is if a person dies intestate and has no heirs.

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